Terpenoids

What is Terpenoid?

Terpenes and terpenoids are the primary constituents of the essential oils of many types of medicinal plants and flowers. Essential oils are used widely as fragrances in perfumery, and in medicine and alternative medicines such as aromatherapy. Synthetic variations and derivatives of natural terpenes and terpenoids also greatly expand the variety of aromas used in perfumery and flavors used in food additives. Vitamin A is a terpenoid.

cannabidiol - cbd

About Terpenoids

Terpenoids are the largest group of natural products. About 60% of known natural products are terpenoids. Plant terpenoids are used extensively for their aromatic qualities.

 

The compound is currently being investigated in the following seven medical conditions:

  1. Cancer
  2. Leukemia
  3. Anxiety 
  4. Depression
  5. Analgesic
  6. Epilepsy
  7. Healing for scars
  8. Insomnia

The Terpenoid plays a role in a variety of bodily functions, including:

  • sedating effects
  • relaxing effect
  • antibacterial
  • physiological effects
  • aromatherapy
  • anti-aging
  • painkiller
  • reduces stress
  • alleviates insomnia

The therapeutic potential of Terpenoid

  • Anti-inflammatory
  • Bronchodilator
  • Stimulant
  • Antibiotic
  • Antineoplastic
  • AChE inhibitor
  • Anti-depressant
  • Antibacterial
  • Cytotoxic
  • Antimicrobial
  • Anti-tumor

Top Terpenoids

1. Pinene

αPinene accounts for cannabis’ familiar odor, often associated with pine trees and turpentine. α-Pinene is the most common naturally occurring terpenoid and acts as both an anti-inflammatory and a bronchodilator.

β-pinene found in plants is an organic monoterpene compound, and is one of the most abundant compounds released by forest trees. If oxidized in air, the allylic products of the pinocarveol and myrtenol family prevail.

2. Myrcene

Myrcene is the most prevalent terpene and is found in most varieties of cannabis. Myrcene concentration dictates whether a strain will have an Indica or Sativa effect. Strains containing over 0.5% of myrcene produce a more sedative high, while strains containing less than 0.5% myrcene have an energizing effect. Myrcene is also present in thyme, hops, lemongrass, and citrus, and is used in aromatherapy. 

3. Limonene

Limonene is a dominant terpene in strains with a pronounced Sativa effect. It is also found in the rinds of citrus fruits. Limonene aids in the absorption of other terpenes through the skin and mucous membranes, and has been used to treat anxiety and depression. 

4. Linalool

Linalool has a floral scent reminiscent of spring flowers, but with spicy overtones. It possesses sedative properties and is an effective anxiety and stress reliever. It has also been used an analgesic and anti-epileptic.

5. Caryophyllene

 β-Caryophyllene is the only terpene known to interact with the body’s endocannabinoid system (CB2). Caryophyllene (or β-Caryophyllene) is a spicy, peppery terpene found in many different edible plants. Spices like black pepper, cloves, and cinnamon, as well as herbs like oregano, basil, hops, and rosemary, are known to exhibit high concentrations of caryophyllene. Due to its affinity to the peripheral CB2 receptors, caryophyllene often appears in anti-inflammatory topicals and salves.

Caryophyllene oxide has a lemon balm odor. It has shown some effectiveness as an insecticidal/antifeedant and as broad spectrum antifungal in plant defense. Caryophyllene oxide has the distinction of being the component responsible for cannabis identification by drug-sniffing dogs.

6. Borneol

This terpene smells earthy, like camphor or even menthol. It’s a strong analgesic pain killer that relaxes and reduces stress, alleviates insomnia, and helps with breathing by relieving pressure in the lungs and increasing air flow. For centuries, borneol has been used in traditional Chinese medicine, most commonly as an ingredient in topical preparations.

7. Eucalyptol

Derived from eucalyptus oil, eucalyptol has a minty, earthy aroma. It has been shown to possess potent antifungal effects.

8. Nerolidol

Trans-nerolidol is a secondary terpene found in many strong aromatics like jasmine, tea tree, and lemongrass. As such, it delivers a subdued and nuanced floral aroma with notes of fruity citrus, apples, and rose. This terpene is believed to produce sedating effects 

Compounds

All Terpenoids